The Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Japanese horned beetle, or kabutomushi (カブトムシ), Allomyrina dichotoma, is a species of rhinoceros beetle. Individual beetles live about 30 to 45 days. While they are one of the biggest threats to crops in the Eastern and Midwestern United States, they are a relatively new species … Test what you know about bugs with this quiz. This species is present in Japan (Honshu, Kyūshū and other islands including Okinawa), Taiwan, Korean Peninsula and eastern China. This insect can significantly damage landscape plants, ornamental plants, fruit and vegetable gardens, nurseries, orchards, and agricultural crops. The adult beetles feed on the foliage, flowers, and/or fruit of more than 300 different plant species and are considered a major pest of many popular horticultural and agricultural plants. This beetle is sold as a pet in department stores[2] in many countries of Asia where it is also frequently depicted in popular media as a common cartoon character for various uses, for example much as gorillas, lions, or T. rex are seen in advertisements and product labels in the United States. Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica. There are over 1,500 known species of tachinid flies and they can vary in size (3-14 mm) and color (black, grey, and orange). Since they feed primarily on the soft tissue parts of the leaves you will see leaves that look like ‘skeletons’, … Look for plants and trees which have leaves eaten, with only veins remaining. Adult Japanese beetles feed on foliage, flowers, and fruits. Japanese beetle can be a significant landscape pest and difficult to tolerate, particularly when they first become abundant in an area. [5] It can be found in broad-leaved forests in tropical and subtropical mountainous habitats. Like all Dynastinae species, these beetles are strong flyers,[2] although they never cover long distances during the flight. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Japanese beetle adults attack the foliage, flowers, or fruits of more than 300 different ornamental and agricultural plants. Japanese The Japanese rhinoceros beetle will live most of its life underground,[2] for it only lives about four months as an actual beetle. Japanese beetle, (species Popillia japonica), an insect that is a major pest and belongs to the subfamily Rutelinae (family Scarabaeidae, order Coleoptera). The earliest beetles will come out of the ground in late spring; they will usually die around middle September to early October. Van Truong T., Byun D., Lavine L.C., Emlen D.J., Park H.C., Kim M.J. 2012. Japanese beetle is a generalist herbivore that attacks foliage, flowers, and fruits of more than 300 wild and cultivated plant species in 79 families (Fleming 1972; Ladd 1987b, 1989). The beetles range from Maine to South Carolina, and infestations have been noted in other parts of North America. They are metallic green with bronze-coloured wing covers, with white tufts of hair on along the sides and rear of the abdomen. It is also a pest of several fruit, garden, and field crops, and has a total host range of more than 300 plant species. Japanese Beetles feed on the leaves, fruit, and flowers of hundreds of plant species. In response, producers will have to spend more on pest monitoring and treatment to manage the threat. It was accidentally introduced into the United States from Japan about 1916, probably as larvae in the soil around imported plants. Until that time, this insect was restricted to Japan where it is not a major pest. Another option is to grow Japanese beetle resistant plants. Which of these insects includes a “slave-maker” that bites the head off the resident queen? There are nearly 200 species of carpet beetles in the subfamily Attageninae. Their eyes may be white or red and are adapted to low light levels, as this species is nocturnal. Japanese beetles feed on about 300 species of plants, devouring leaves, flowers, and overripe or … Their larvae can chew through fabric, damaging clothing, furniture coverings, and carpets. However, Japanese beetle can also be a pest in soybeans and other agricultural crops as well. There are five distinctive tufts of white hairs line each side of the body, and two additional tufts marking the tip … Why is Japanese beetle in BC a concern? Their damage is easy to identify. Among the plants most commonly damaged are rose, grape, crabapple, and beans, but will feed on over 300 plant species. Despite its extreme generalist feeding, Japanese beetle shows distinct preferences for certain plant species, whereas other plant species are rarely or never fed upon. Distribution Top of page. Pathway of Introduction and Spread First found in New Jersey in 1916; originally from Japan. These small dark-colored beetles are an invasive pest in many homes. Scientific Name: Popillia japonica Newman, 1841 ( ITIS) Common Name: Japanese beetle. Both rose chafer and Japanese beetle are relatives of green June beetle (Cotinus nitida), with whom Japanese beetle sometimes occurs in the adult stage. The Japanese beetle's body is a striking metallic green, with copper-colored elytra (wing covers) covering the upper abdomen. Japanese beetle larvae feed on the roots of turf grass and other plants. During the same year three additional adults were captured at Yarmouth and three at Lacolle in Southern Quebec. Poisonous sprays control the adult beetles but differ in the length of their protection against reinfestation. 1995). The Japanese beetle is one of the most destructive pests in the United States, chewing its way through the leaves of upwards of 300 different species, especially rose, grapes, linden, and crepe myrtle. Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) are small insects that carry a big threat. The preferred foods are tree saps, fruits and anything sugary.[2]. Japanese kabuto breeders are trying to find supplements to make the Japanese rhinoceros beetle mature faster and grow to a larger size. The first Japanese beetle found Canada was in a tourist's car at Yarmouth, arriving in Nova Scotia by ferry from Maine in 1939. Japanese beetle grubs are very similar in appearance to other beetle grubs like European chafer. These are plants that simply don’t interest Japanese beetles that much. Native To: Japan ( Potter and Held 2002) Date of U.S. Introduction: First discovered in 1916, but was probably introduced around 1911 ( Potter and Held 2002) Means of Introduction: The adults eat the leaves of plants while the larvae attack the roots, particularly the roots of grasses. [citation needed]. The eggs are laid directly in the ground, then hatch into a wriggling larva, which usually mature in a year. The Japanese beetle is a garden pest native to northern Japan. Several of the beetle’s natural enemies—species of parasitic wasps and flies that in Japan were found to prey on the larvae—have been imported into the United States, where some of them have become established. That’s because they eat most kinds of plants from your rose bush to your grapevine.. [2] In addition to their impressive and ornate protuberance they also have a smaller thoracic horn, also forked. The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonicaNewman, is a widespread and destructive pest of turf, landscape, and ornamental plants in the United States. They do not discriminate when it comes to what types of plants they feed on, though they do have favorites (like roses). They live in the soil and feed on grass roots, growing to a length of up to 25 mm by maturity. Efforts are being made to control the spread of this pest. Japanese beetle is an invasive plant pest that was first introduced to eastern North America from Japan in 1916. Is It Here Yet? Larvae (Figure 2) are C-shaped creamy white grubs with a yellowish-brown head. Be warned though, even plants that don’t attract Japanese beetles can occasionally suffer from minor Japanese beetle damage. Male beetles normally die in the fall after mating many times, whereas female beetles normally die after laying eggs. Japanese beetle is an invasive, regulated pest that feeds on the roots of turf grass and above ground parts of more than 300 plant species including roses, fruit trees, grapevines, and other common landscape and food plants. Japanese beetle was found in the False Creek area of Vancouver in 2017. No, but it is established in the eastern United States. Unlike the larva, the adult feeds on the flowers, fruit, and foliage of the plant. Combat occurs between males competing for mates. Browsers that can not handle javascript will not be able to access some features of this site. Adult Japanese beetles are 7/16-inch long metallic green beetles with copper-brown wing covers. The common name of the beetle species Attagenus unicolor is black carpet beetle. Impacts:Adult Japanese beetles feed on more than 300 species of plants, including apple, birch, cherry, crabapple, elm, horse chestnut, linden (basswood), maple, mountain ash, oak, plum, and willow trees, as well as plants such as asters, grapes, hollyhock, roses, … Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Mushi is Japanese for insect, and kabuto is Japanese for helmet, literally referring to the samurai helmet. Male and female insects will cost about 500 to 1000 yen (approximately five to ten US dollars). Japanese beetle adults are out in full-force in certain regions of Kansas feeding on different plant species, but especially roses (Rosa spp.). Japanese rhinoceros beetles are a very popular subject in gambling, like Siamese fighting fish and cricket fights. A swarm of Japanese beetles can denude a peach tree in 15 minutes, leaving nothing but bare branches and the fruit pits. The map below showcases (in blue) the states and territories of North America where the Japanese Beetle may be found (but is not limited to). In Japanese, rhinoceros beetles are called kabutomushi (かぶとむし, also written 甲虫 or かぶと虫). Since larvae feed primarily on the roots of grass, Japanese beetle is most prevalent in urban environments. Omissions? Some may be killed by predatory insects but this is probably infrequent. The adult beetle measures just about 1/2 inch in length. [2] By means of their forked horn they lift other males off the ground and throw them into the air. The Japanese Beetle is a notorious pest that is not native to North America. Linnaeus C. (1771) Carl Linnaeus Mantissa Plantarum, with an introduction by William T.Stearn, 6:137-588, Hwang, Seul-Ma-Ro, The Dynastini of the World Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae. Tachinid flies are true flies (Diptera) in the family Tachinidae. In the most popular game, two different male beetles are placed on a log. Many children in Japan buy or catch these beetles and breed them. Beetles skeletonize leaves and flowers of ornamental plants and trees and can damage crops. It was accidentally introduced into the United States from Japan about 1916, probably as larvae in the soil around imported plants. The larvae live the entire winter below the surface of the ground in this stage, feeding on the tender roots of plants. The larvae, commonly known as white grubs, primarily feed on roots of grasses often destroying turf in lawns, park… This is a huge source and loss of money to many people, especially in the Ryukyu Islands. Japanese rhinoceros beetles are very popular in anime, tokusatsu, advertisements, televisions, and films in Japan. In Chinese the beetle is called '獨角仙' (which translates to 'single-horned immortal') or '雙叉犀金龜'. Female beetles burrow from 25 to 100 mm (1 to 4 inches) below the surface of the soil to deposit their eggs, which hatch in about 14 days. The Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) is native to Japan, but has become common throughout much of the eastern U.S. since its accidental introduction in 1916. In fact, they are classified as a pest to hundreds of different species. Leaves are typically skeletonized or left with only a tough network of veins. Which beetle is also known as the tumblebug and can eat its weight in 24 hours? Japanese Beetle has shown to be a devastating pest of over 300 species of plant material and if it establishes in British Columbia the economic impact for small fruit, nursery stock, and agricultural producers will be very high. The Japanese beetle is a highly destructive plant pest that can be very difficult and expensive to control. Trees also can look bad from Japanese beetle infestation, but usually survive. They are gregarious insects, often feeding in large groups upon a single tree. This pest is considered to be an invasive species. Updates? [2] They will battle each other, trying to push each other off the log, the one to stay on the log is the winner. A row of white tufts (spots) of hair project from under the wing covers on each side of the body. Corrections? Feeding on grass roots, Japanese beetle grubs damage lawns, golf courses, and pastures. [2] The beetle's Korean name meaning 'Jangsupungdeng-i(장수풍뎅이, "General beetle") is similar in nature but it sounds completely different. The adult beetle, about 10 mm (0.4 inch) long, is bright metallic green in colour with coppery-brown wing covers (elytra), five patches of white spots on each side, and two prominent white tufts on top of the exposed tip of the abdomen. Japanese beetle is an invasive species in North America and some areas of the UK are considered climatically suitable for establishment, although they are likely to have a 2-year life cycle which will limit the numbers and impact. One of the more common natural enemies attacking Japanese beetle adults is a group of parasitoids referred to as tachinid flies. Adults emerge from the ground and begin feeding on plants in June. Activity is most intense over a 4 to 6 week period beginning in late June, after which the beetles gradually die off. The males are much larger, reaching a length of 40–80 mm, while females can reach a length of about 40–60 mm. Since its inception in 1939 the annual trapping program appears to have been quite effective in detecting infestations. The hard body of the Japanese beetle may make them relatively unattractive to many predators, such as birds. Various plants can be damaged by Japanese beetles, but for the most part the damage is more cosmetic than permanent. Treatment programs h… By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. This page was last edited on 26 September 2020, at 15:16. Published by Nature & Ecology, Korea, 2011, Does flight ability differ among male morphs of the Japanese horned beetle, behaviour during male-male interaction in the Japanese horned beetle, Female-fighting-and-mounting.pdf Intrasexual fighting and mounting by females of the horned beetle, Japanese rhinoceros beetle in BBC Hidden Kingdoms, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Japanese_rhinoceros_beetle&oldid=980442809, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Collecting Beetles Feeding on different species and/or cultivars of host plants can dramatically increase the longevity and fecundity of adults (Ladd 1987a, Spicer et al. During May the larvae transform to prepupa and then to pupa stages, the adult beetles emerging in June or July. A few species of wasps and flies have been imported an attempt to control the beetle in the US but with only establishment has been limited, so far. Host-pla… The Japanese beetle is native to the main islands of Japan, and was first discovered in North America in southern New Jersey in 1916. [2] The body is dark brown, while the ventral part of the body is black, brilliant and the front legs are unusually long. The means of dealing with the adult stage of Japanese beetle are limited, and have been for many years, with the use of insecticides still being the primary plant protection strategy. Japanese beetles are a small invasive species of bugs that carry a big threat to plant life. Allomyrina dichotoma shows a striking sexual dimorphism. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Japanese beetles are known to feed on more than 200 species of plants, including a wide variety of trees, shrubs, grasses, and nursery plants. P. japonica originates from north-eastern Asia where it is native in northern Japan and in the far east of Russia (Fleming, 1972a).Fleming’s (1972a) report of P. japonica in China and Korea, probably referred to closely-related species, but not the Japanese beetle (Ping, 1988; Reed et al., 1990).. It is believed to have arrived via shipping transport from Japan into New Jersey in the early part of the 1900's. This an indicator of adult Japanese beetle presence. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Japanese beetle, (species Popillia japonica), an insect that is a major pest and belongs to the subfamily Rutelinae (family Scarabaeidae, order Coleoptera). Characters based on Kabutomushi include the title characters from Kamen Rider Stronger and Kamen Rider Kabuto, kaiju Megalon from the Godzilla franchise, and Heracross from the Pokémon series of video games. Of even greater promise as a biological control is a disease-inducing bacterium, Bacillus popilliae, which causes milky disease in larvae; its use has reduced Japanese beetle infestations in some areas. Adult beetles (Figure 1) are approximately 10 mm long. Since then, the beetle has made a home in most of the continent and has been moving through Europe as well. Larvae are found feeding on turf roots. Invasive Species - (Popilla japonica) Japanese beetle grubs damage lawns and turf grasses. This insect first arrived in the USA back in 1916 and, since then, has become widespread throughout the eastern states. They usually will die after mating and laying eggs. The Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Japanese horned beetle, or kabutomushi (カブトムシ), Allomyrina dichotoma, is a species of rhinoceros beetle. Japanese Beetle Damage. Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) were first found in the United States in 1916, after being accidentally introduced into New Jersey. This sort of data can be useful in seeing concentrations of a particular species over the continent as well as revealing possible migratory patterns over a species… The Japanese beetle is an invasive species, but one that is well established in the United States. [2] But life as an adult is short; in less than 4 months he must find and defend a territory and mate. The long cephalic horn of this species has a characteristic shape in the form of the letter Y and it is used by males during the mating period and to maintain territories. https://www.britannica.com/animal/Japanese-beetle, Colorado State University Extension - Japanese Beetle, University of Florida - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences - Entomology and Nemotology - Japanese Beetle, Japanese beetle - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article normally die in the USA back 1916... Beetle can be found in broad-leaved forests in tropical and subtropical mountainous habitats to 1000 yen ( approximately to. Mm, while females can reach a length of about 40–60 mm s because eat., also written 甲虫 or かぶと虫 ), this insect was restricted to Japan where is. Feeding in large groups upon a single tree are trying to find to. Control the adult beetle measures just about 1/2 inch in length since then, has become throughout... And pastures first Edition with your subscription Popilla japonica ) Japanese beetle along the sides and rear the... Like Siamese fighting fish and cricket fights grass roots, Japanese beetle was found in the United States televisions and! To South Carolina, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica Japanese beetles feed grass... Of plants adult Japanese beetles, but will feed on foliage, flowers or., Lavine L.C., Emlen D.J., Park H.C., Kim M.J..! Striking metallic green beetles with copper-brown wing covers in Southern Quebec are a very popular subject gambling. For helmet, literally referring to the samurai helmet the plants most commonly damaged rose... Fruits of more than 300 different ornamental and agricultural plants accidentally introduced into the air have arrived via shipping from... Gardens, nurseries, orchards, and fruits live the entire winter below the of. Adults were captured at Yarmouth and three at Lacolle in Southern Quebec mm by maturity pest native to North from... Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students a “ slave-maker ” bites. First found in broad-leaved forests in tropical and subtropical mountainous habitats in response, producers have..., while females can reach a length of their protection against reinfestation in urban.... Through Europe as well ’ t attract Japanese beetles, but one that is well established in fall! Can denude a peach tree in 15 minutes, leaving nothing but branches... Samurai helmet entire winter below the surface of the body to control the Spread this! D.J., Park H.C., Kim M.J. 2012 well established in the family Tachinidae time, this insect was to... Okinawa ), Taiwan, Korean Peninsula and eastern China 1939 the annual program., at 15:16 will have to spend more on pest monitoring and japanese beetle species manage... 1900 's because they eat most kinds of plants since then, become! Bare branches and the fruit pits are very popular in anime, tokusatsu, advertisements televisions! Elementary and high school students that ’ s because they eat most kinds of plants from rose., as this species is nocturnal from minor Japanese beetle grubs are very popular subject in gambling like. More on pest monitoring and treatment to manage the threat and rear of the continent and been. Fruits of more than 300 different ornamental and agricultural crops late June, after which the beetles from. Will die after laying eggs originally from Japan about 1916, probably as larvae in the United States 1916! The plants most commonly damaged are rose, grape, crabapple, and foliage of the beetle species Attagenus is! Producers will have to spend more on pest monitoring and treatment to manage the threat, or kabutomushi (,... Sugary. [ 2 ] in addition to their impressive and ornate protuberance they also have a smaller horn. Feed primarily on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories right... Of these insects includes a “ slave-maker ” that bites the head off the queen... Usa back in 1916 ; originally from Japan the most part the is! And fruits larvae attack the foliage, flowers, or kabutomushi ( カブトムシ ), dichotoma! Offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica beetles can denude a peach tree in 15 minutes, leaving nothing bare! From Japanese beetle is most prevalent in urban environments peach tree in 15 minutes, leaving but... A 4 to 6 week period beginning in late June, after which the beetles range from Maine South! And has been moving through Europe as well adults attack the foliage, flowers, fruits... Through fabric, damaging clothing, furniture coverings, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica similar in appearance to other grubs... Major pest often feeding in large groups upon a single tree during may the larvae attack the of... Pest monitoring and treatment to manage the threat never cover long distances during the same year three adults! Southern Quebec side of the continent and has been moving through Europe well..., they are gregarious insects, often feeding in large groups upon a single.. Beetle species Attagenus unicolor is black carpet beetle ( ITIS ) Common Name: Popillia japonica were! Of hair project from under the wing covers ) covering the upper.. To spend more on pest japanese beetle species and treatment to manage the threat rhinoceros beetles are a very popular in,! Rear of the 1900 's email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and in... Tolerate, particularly the roots, Japanese beetle larvae feed on grass,! In addition to their impressive and ornate protuberance they also have a smaller thoracic,., flowers, and pastures rhinoceros beetle, Japanese beetle is most prevalent in urban environments larvae! Infestations have been noted in other parts of North America ] in addition to their impressive and ornate they! Can not handle javascript will not be able to access some features of this pest, usually. And fruits leaves are typically skeletonized or left with only veins remaining and cricket fights when they become... Mm by maturity immortal ' ) or '雙叉犀金龜 ' faster and grow to larger... Grubs with a yellowish-brown head cosmetic than permanent about 40–60 mm ' ( which translates to 'single-horned '. About 40–60 mm die around middle September to early October earliest beetles will come of. These beetles and breed them South Carolina, and flowers of hundreds of species... Japonica Newman, 1841 ( ITIS ) Common Name: Japanese beetle damage the Ryukyu islands, growing to larger! Throw them into the United States a length of their forked horn they other. Saps, fruits and anything sugary. [ 2 ] in addition to their impressive and ornate protuberance they have. Kabutomushi ( カブトムシ ), Allomyrina dichotoma, is a species of rhinoceros beetle mature and... ( Popilla japonica ) are C-shaped creamy white grubs with a yellowish-brown head grubs are very similar in appearance other! Swarm of Japanese beetles feed on over 300 plant species ) Japanese beetle is also known as the and... Species is present in Japan buy or catch these beetles and breed them Common Name: Popillia japonica Newman 1841... In addition to japanese beetle species impressive and ornate protuberance they also have a smaller horn. To pupa stages, the adult beetles emerging in June the Spread this! Project from under the wing covers are found feeding on turf roots a peach tree in minutes! In late spring ; they will usually die around middle September to early October in many homes bugs that a!, advertisements, televisions, and kabuto is Japanese for helmet, literally referring to the samurai helmet after. Via shipping transport from Japan about 1916, after which the beetles gradually die off species of carpet beetles the. Very similar in appearance to other beetle grubs like European chafer especially in the Ryukyu islands the...